Department Details
Branch: Engineerings
Department: Civil Engineering Department
Location: Adminstrative Building

Publication Details
Staff Member Name1- Prof. dr. Ahmed Mahmoud Azmy
Publication Name In-Stream Wetland as a Low Cost Wastewater Treatment Technique
Publication DescriptionDrainage is and will continue to be a vital and necessary component of the agricultural production systems. In Egypt, Due to scarcity of water resources, drainage water is being reused. Currently about 5.5 BCM of drainage water are being reused after mixing with fresh water. This amount is expected to increase to 9.6 BCM by the year 2017. A major concern when considering drainage water reuse is whether the drainage water quality is within the allowable limits for different uses as outlined by the water quality standards and lows. Wastewater treatment in the Egyptian rural areas lags far behind potable water supply.
This practice has contributed to widespread degradation of drainage water quality and, so, the reuse of drainage water plans in Egypt. Among the nature treatment systems, in-stream wetland has a high potential for application in rural areas of Egypt where the treatment process takes place within the drain, so it needs much less land, easily maintained, can adsorb shock loads and relatively needs less capital and operational cost. All these features plus the ability to markedly reduce BOD, nutrients, pathogen concentrations, have made in-stream wetland very attractive option for rural communities .
The objective of this paper is to present the site selection criteria, in-stream wetland system limitations, the baseline phase results, intensive water quality monitoring program, and the design criteria. The baseline studies show that the performance of the selected drain without physical engineering intervention varies in a narrow range from 29% to 37% for BOD removal with the expected treatment efficiency in detention time below one day.
The overall efficiency of the in-stream wetland including sedimentation zone can reach up to 50 to 80% depending on the allowable detention time (DRI & CLEQM, Aug.2003). The performance of the in-stream wetland treatment system under Egyptian conditions is expected to be equivalent to the primary to secondary conventional treatment and based on the designed detention time and aquatic species used.